PANCHANGA - Vaar, Tithi, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karan

Vaar, Tithi, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karan put together makes Panchanga meaning five anga or parts.

1) Varsha (Year): There are primarily three types of years:-

a) Solar year : It starts when Sun enters Aries sign and is approximately of 365 days and relates to apparent movement of Sun in 12 signs
b) Chandra (Lunar) Year: It starts from Chaitra (lunar) month and Pratipada tithi of shukla paksha. There are approximately 354 days in a lunar year.
c) Brihaspatya Year: Brihaspatya means Jupiter and one Brihaspatya year is equal 12 months, the average time taken by Jupiter in a sign. It is also referred as Sanvatsar.

2) Ayana: There are two Ayana viz Uttrayana and Dakshinayan of 6 months each. When Sun transits from Capricorn to Gemini, the period is known as Uttrayana. And when Sun transits from Cancer to Sagittarius, the period is referred as Dakshinayan. Ayana is calculated from Sayana Sankranti only.
3) Ritu (seasons): There are six types of ritus or seasons in a year. viz. Shishir, Basant and Gresham in Uttrayana and
Varsha, Sharad and Haymant in Dakshinayan

Ritus (Seasons) Months
Gresham Ritu Summers June - July
Varsha Ritu Rains July - Sept
Sharad Ritu Autumn Oct - Nov
Haymant Ritu Early Winter Dec - Jan
Shishir Ritu Winter Jan - Mar
Basant Ritu Spring April - May

4) Maas (month): There are two types of months :
a) Solar Month is equal to Sun’s transit in a sign.
b) Lunar Month: Transit of Moon from a full Moon day to another full Moon day. There are 12 lunar months named as under :

Lunar Month Solar month
1. Chaitra Mar-Apr
2. Vaishakh Apr-May
3. Jyestha May-June
4. Aashadh June-July
5. Shravan July-Aug
6. Bhadrapad Aug-Sep
7. Ashwin Sep-Oct
8. Kaartik Oct-Nov
9. Margsheersh Nov-Dec
10. Paush Dec-Jan
11. Maagh Jan-Feb
12. Fhalgun Feb-Mar

Please refer Panchanga for better understanding

5) Paksha: There are two paksha of 15 tithis each in one lunar month viz. Shukla Paksha and Krishna Paksha. Shukla means bright or white and Krishna means dark or black. Starting from Amavasya (no moon day) and up to Purnima (full moon day) is shukla paksha because kala or brightness of moon increases in this period. From the full moon day to no moon day, 15 days period is referred as Krishna paksha as brightness of moon decreases in this period.

In predictive Astrology, great importance is given to the strength of Moon in terms of paksha bala (paksha strength). In general a planet is considered strong when in exaltation stage and is found in similar state or in benefic houses in 16 divisional charts. But for Moon, the first importance is given to its paksha bala instead of exaltation. A strong Moon or a f
full moon makes the person mentally strong to sustain or protect what he gets through his destiny or Sun (giver).

6) Vaar (Day): As we know there are 7 days in a week viz. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday ….Saturday. It is good to know that sequence of week days have some sense behind and is explained as under:

Please refer the last page of first lesson wherein planet position is mentioned. Starting from Saturn as the outer most planet, next planet is Jupiter than Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon and finally we reach our Earth. Lets write it again in the mentioned sequence:


The first day of Săt Yuga i.e. the first day of Mahayuga starts from Sunday. As we know, there are 24 hours in a day; each hour or Hora is ruled by a planet starting from the same sequence as mentioned above. After Sun, second Hora belongs to Venus followed by Mercury, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, again Sun, Venus likewise till we count 24 Horas or hours. The day will finish after 24 horas and we enter into next day with 25th Hora. If you calculate, we get Moon as 25th Hora lord so Monday is the next day after Sunday. Likewise, please count further and we get 25th hora of Mars so Tuesday.

It is important to remember for predictive astrology that everyday starts with its own hora of 1 hour starting from Sunrise time. Remedies related to a planet gives best result if performed in its own hora or hora of friendly planet. If remedies (related to a planet) are performed in the hora of lord of sign of debilitation planet, it gives extremely poor results. For example we wish to perform remedy for Saturn on Saturday. Starting from Sunrise, the pattern is Saturn-Jupiter-Mars. This means third hora belongs to Mars who is lord of Aries, the debilitation point of Saturn. All remedies performed in this hora will yield negative results instead of positive. We will discuss about remedial measures in detail later.

7) Tithi: There are 15 tithis each in shukla and krishna paksha. One kala of moon is referred as Tithi.They are as under:

Name of Tithi Number Sangya Lord of Tithi
Pratipada 1 Nanda Agni
Dwitya 2 Bhadra Brhama
Tritya 3 Jaya Gauri
Chaturthi 4 Rikta Ganesh
Panchmi 5 Purna Naag
Shashti 6 Nanda Kaartik
Saptami 7 Bhadra Surya
Ashtami 8 Jaya Shiv
Navmi 9 Rikta Durga
Dashmi 10 Purna Yam
Ekadashi 11 Nanda Vishwadeva
Dwadshi 12 Bhadra Vishnu
Tryodashi 13 Jaya Kaamdeva
Chaturdashi 14 Rikta Shiv
Purnima or Amavasya 15 Purna Chandra or Pitra

Mathematical Calculation of Tithi:

Longitude of Moon – Longitude of Sun
Tithi = ________________________________

12 degrees

8) Nakshatra: There are 27 constellations or Nakshatra in 360 degrees zodiac each measuring 13 degrees 20 minutes. Abhijit Nakshatra is not used in predictive astrology but in Muhurata (auspicious time of a work) only. Each Nakshatra has four charana of 3 degree 20 minutes each. A native gets the first letter for his name on the basis of nakhshatra charana of Moon. They are as under:

Name of Nakshatra First letter of name (Naam-akshar) related to Nakshatra charan Nakshatra Lord
Ashwini chu, chay, cho, Laa Ashwini Kumar
Bharani Lee, Lu, Lay, Lo Yam
Krittika Aa, Ee, uu(udhar), Aay Agni
Rohini O, vaa, vee, voo Brahma
Mrigashira vay vo, kaa, kKee Chandra
Ardra Ku, Gha(Ghati-pal), da,
Chha(chatree meaning umbrella) Shiv
Punarvasu Kay, Ko, Haa, Hee, Aditi
Pushya Hu, Hay, Ho, Daa Brihspati
Ashlesha Dee, Du, Day, Do Sarp
Magha Ma, Me, Mu, May Pitar
Purva Phalguni Mo, Ta, Ti, Tu Bhag
Uttara Phalguni Tay, To, Pa, Pee Aryamaa
Hasta Pu, Sha, ana, Tha Savita
Chitra Pay, Po, Ra, Ree Twashta
Swati Ru, Ray, Ro, Ta Vaayu
Vishakha Tee, Tu, Tay, To Indraagni
Anuradha Na, Nee, Nu, Nay Mitra
Jyeshtha No, Ya Yee, Yu Indra
Mula Yay, Yo, Bhaa, Bhi Rakshsa or Naeyriti
Purva Shadya Bhu, Dhaa(Dharmendra), Fhaa, Ddhaa Jal
Uttara Shadya Bhay, Bho, Jaa, Jee Vishvaydeva
(Abhijit) Ju, Jay, Jo, Khaa Brhama
Shravana Khee, Khu, Khay, Kho Vishnu
Dhanishtha Gaa, Gee, Gu, Gay Vasu
Shatbisha Go, Saa, See, Su Varun
Purva Bhadrapada Say,so,Da,Dee (darjling) Ajaiykapaad
Uttara Bhadrapada Du, Tha(thakna meaning
feeling tired), Jjha(jharkhand), ana Ahirbudhanya
Revati Day(Devanand), Do, Chaa, Chee Pushaa

Let us take an example to understand the above table. Suppose a native was born with Moon in Aries sign, 7 degrees 30 minutes. 0 degree to 3 degrees 20 minutes of Aries belong to Ashwani Nakshatra and its first charan. 3 degrees 20 minutes to 6 degrees 40 minutes belong to Ashwani Nakshatra and its second charan. 6 degrees 40 minutes to 10 degrees belong to Ashwani Nakshatra and its third charan. 10 degrees to 13 degrees 20 minutes belong to Aries sign, Ashwani Nakshatra and its 4th charan. As the native has Moon, 7 degrees 30 minutes, he is born in 3rd charana of Ashwani Nakshatra. The first letter of his name will be “cho”.

9) Yoga: The time taken to cover 13 degrees 20 minutes or 800 minutes by (both) Sun and Moon. There are 27 yogas which are as under

Vishkumbh, Preeti, Aayushman, Saubhagya, Shobhan, Atigand, Sukarma, Dhriti, Shool, Gand, Vridhi, Dhruv, Vyaghaat, Harshan, Vajra, Sidhi, Vyatipaat,
Variyaan, Parigh, Shiv, Sidh, Sadhya, Shubh, Shukla, Brahm, Ayndra, Vaidhriti.

Unlike Nakshatra, yoga is just measurement of time of distance only.

10) Karan: Half of a Tithi is called a Karan so there are two Karans in one Tithi. There are 11 Karans viz. 1) BAV 2) BAALAV 3) KAULAV 4) TAITIL 5) GARA 6) VAANIJ 7) VISHTI OR BHADRA 8) SHAKUNI 9) CHATUSHPAAD 10) NAAG 11) KINSTUGHNA The first 7 of these Karans are char or moveable so it cannot be predetermined on which dates these karans are going to occur, but the last 4 karans are sthira or fixed and hence can be predetermined. Sthira karan occurs near Amavasya or no moon day and are considered in-auspicious.

11) Ascendant or lagana: The rising sign in the eastern horizon at the time of birth of a native is called as ascendant. We will discuss in detail about lagna and its mathematical calculations late.


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